Matsuda Index


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Study on Index for Insulin Sensitivity


Composite index

addressReference of "Matsuda Index"

Original Publication
  • Matsuda M, DeFronzo RA : Insulin sensitivity indices obtained from oral glucose tolerance testing: comparison with the euglycemic insulin clamp. Diabetes Care 22:1462-1470, 1999.
  • DeFronzo RA, Matsuda M: Reduced time points to calculate the composie index [letter] Diabetes Care 33:e93,2010

Review articles inJapanese
  • M. Matsuda: Glucose clamp, Index of insulin resistance used clinical situations - fact and features- Basics and Clinical Application of Insulin resistance.Diabetes Frontier 14:304-308. 2003
  • M. Matsuda: HOMA index Clinical examination related to Metabolic syndrome "Seijin-byo to Seikatsu-shuukan-byo" 35(8):887-890 2005
  • M. Matsuda; Diagnosis of insulin resistance. "Hormon to Risho" 53(11):1159-1168: 2005
  • M. Matsuda: Dysability of insulin secretion and insulin resistance. Recent insulin treatment. Special features of patients with diabetes mellitus with regard to insulin secretion. "Kango-Gijutsu" 52(11):931-933,2006
  • M. Matsuda; Evaluation of insulin resistance in the liver. Diabetes Frontier Page504-508, 2007
  • M. Matsuda; Insulin resistance and its index ) BIO Clinica 24(3): 226-232, 2009.
  • M. Matsuda; Treatment based on the evaluation of insulin resistance and insulin secretion. Medical Practice 26(4):569-572, 2009.

Chapters in books in Japanese
  • M Matsuda: Recent finding of pathophysiology and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Clinical Evaluatio of Insulin resistance. Editor; Yoshio Yazaki, Progress of molecular diabetology 2002 (Kanehara-shuppan, Tokyo JAPAN) pp.102-108, 2002.
  • M. Matsuda; Index of insulin resistance Color Diabetology Basic and Clinical Sciences; Editor Takashi Kadowaki et al. (Nishimura-shoten, Tokyo, JAPAN), pp.421-426, 2007.
  • M Matsuda: Recent finding of pathophysiology and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Clinical Evaluatio of Insulin resistance. Editor; Yoshio Yazaki, Progress of molecular diabetology 2007 (Kanehara-shuppan, Tokyo JAPAN) pp.95-100, 2007.

Masafumi Matsuda, MD, PhDWhat is "Matsuda Index"?

Dr. Masafumi Matsuda and Prof. Ralph A DeFronzo first adovocate compsite index (ISI(comp))in 1999 on Diabetes Care, which was induced as index to evalute whole body physiolgical insulin sensitivity from the data obtained by oral glucose tolerance test as indicated above.

Question Frequently asked questions

1 How to caluculatte "Matsuda Index"?
Please click WEB calculator & EXCEL form or an icon of a computer on the left side of this page.

2 Why this formula had been introduced?
Glucose tolerance and insulin secretion had been well evaluated through oral glucose tolerance test and it shoule be possible to evaluate insulin sensitivity, because glucose tolerance is determined by insulin sencretiaon and insulin sensitivity.

3 Relation with other methods?
New Haven, CT (n=37) 5.43 (2.7-9.6, ±1.9)
San Antonio, TX (n=62) 4.34 (1.0-11.0, ±2.6)
Correlation with clamp: r ≧ 0.73

4 What is the normal value of "Matsuda Index"?
"Matsuda Index" had been designed to indicate values which are comparable to Rd (rate of disappearence of plasma glucose) measured by insulin clamp (1mU/kg per min insulin infusion, corrected at the insulin concentration of 100 microU/ml) with glucose tracer. 10000 in the fomular was defined for that purpose.
Threshold value to indicate insulin resistance was indicated on Diabetes (Stern SE et al: Diabetes 54:333, 2000). From the publication, subjects who don't have insulin resistance have values of "Matsuda Index" of 3 or higher.
Actually, 2.5 of "Matsuda Index" has been used to find subjects with insulin resistance in the USA (Kerman WN et al Stroke 34:1431, 2003).

5.We only have samples during OGTT at 0, 60, and 120 minutes, or at 0 and 120 minutes. Is there a way to calculate the composite index?
It is possible to calcualte it! If you have samples at 0, 60 and 120 minutes, you may use the same trapezoid method to estimate the area under the curve of glucose or insulin resposne. If you only have samples at 0 and 120 minutes, the value at 120 minutes may be used to estimate the average of response of glucose or insulin as follows;
ISI(comp) = 10,000 / sqrt (G0 x I0 x G120 x I120)
where 10,000 is a constant, G0 and G120 represents the plssma glucose concentrations at time 0 and 120min, I0 and I120 are the plasma insulin concentrations at time 0 and 120 min, sqrt is the mathematical function to calculate the square root. (Diabetes Care 33:e93,2010)
 Please keep in mind that If the way of calculation is different, you cannot compare values.

6 Are there any methods with use oral glucose tolerance test to evaluate insulin sensitivity?

OGTT product
IRI and PG during oral glucose load: average PG x average IRI
(Levine R et al: N Engl J Med 283:237, 1970)
IRI and PG during oral glucose load: SI
(Cederholm J et al: Diabetes Res Clin Pract 10:167, 1990)
Composite index or Matsuda index
IRI and PG during oral glucose load: ISI(Comp)
(Matsuda M et al: Diabetes Care 22:1462, 1999)
Si calculated from fasting and post oral glucose load
IRI and PG during oral glucose load: Sib, Si2h, SiM
(Avignon A et al: Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 23:512, 1999)
ISI (*)
BMI, IRI at 120 min, PG at 90 min: ISI
(Stumvoll M et al: Diabetes Care 23:295, 2000)
IRI and PG after oral glucose load: OGIS
(Mari A et al: Diabetes Care 24:539, 2001)
SI (oral) : minimal model index
IRI and PG during meal load: SI (oral)
(Caumo A et al: J Clin Endocrineol Metab 85:4396, 2000)
SI (oral) : minimal model index
IRI and PG during oral glucose load: SI (oral)
(Brenda E et al: Diabetes 50:150, 2001)
IRI and PG after oral glucose load: SIis
(Bastard JP et al.: Diabetes Metab 33:261, 2007)
Muscle and liver insulin resistance indexes
IRI and PG during oral glucose load: ISI
(Abdul-Ghani MA, Matsuda M, Balas B, DeFronzo RA: Diabetes Care. 2007 Jan;30(1):89-94,2007)

*:induced method

6 Citation
According to Scoups ( more than 1,000 articles has cited the original Diabetes Care paper since 1999.

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